Document

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 

FORM 10-Q 

(Mark One)
ý
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2018
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to            .
Commission File Number: 001-36730
 

SYNEOS HEALTH, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
27-3403111
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
3201 Beechleaf Court, Suite 600, Raleigh, North Carolina 27604-1547
(Address of principal executive offices and Zip Code)
(919) 876-9300
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one): 
Large accelerated filer
 
x
  
Accelerated filer
 
¨
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
As of July 26, 2018, there were approximately 102,882,326 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.



Table of Contents






SYNEOS HEALTH, INC.
FORM 10-Q


TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Page
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 5.
Item 6.
 
 


2



Table of Contents



PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements.
SYNEOS HEALTH, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Unaudited)

 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
Service revenue
$
1,072,530

 
$
258,087

 
$
2,129,726

 
$
510,165

Reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses

 
133,048

 

 
262,888

Total revenue
1,072,530

 
391,135

 
2,129,726

 
773,053

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Costs and operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct costs (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)
547,993

 
162,010

 
1,080,050

 
316,845

Reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses
299,472

 
133,048

 
608,238

 
262,888

Selling, general, and administrative
100,218

 
42,531

 
199,477

 
87,465

Restructuring and other costs
8,591

 
4,029

 
22,298

 
5,956

Transaction and integration-related expenses
18,032

 
23,739

 
43,243

 
23,741

Depreciation
17,557

 
6,066

 
35,585

 
12,230

Amortization
49,945

 
9,462

 
99,938

 
18,926

Total operating expenses
1,041,808

 
380,885

 
2,088,829

 
728,051

Income from operations
30,722

 
10,250

 
40,897

 
45,002

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other (expense) income, net:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income
1,655

 
152

 
2,494

 
264

Interest expense
(32,894
)
 
(3,286
)
 
(64,630
)
 
(6,386
)
Loss on extinguishment of debt
(1,877
)
 

 
(2,125
)
 

Other income (expense), net
32,001

 
(6,754
)
 
19,447

 
(10,211
)
Total other expense, net
(1,115
)
 
(9,888
)
 
(44,814
)
 
(16,333
)
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
29,607

 
362

 
(3,917
)
 
28,669

Income tax (expense) benefit
(16,047
)
 
3,027

 
(7,075
)
 
(4,093
)
Net income (loss)
$
13,560

 
$
3,389

 
$
(10,992
)
 
$
24,576

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.13

 
$
0.06

 
$
(0.11
)
 
$
0.45

Diluted
$
0.13

 
$
0.06

 
$
(0.11
)
 
$
0.45

Weighted average common shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
102,899

 
54,123

 
103,674

 
54,069

Diluted
104,005

 
55,307

 
103,674

 
55,215


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

3



Table of Contents



SYNEOS HEALTH, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(Unaudited)

 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
(In thousands)
Net income (loss)
$
13,560

 
$
3,389

 
$
(10,992
)
 
$
24,576

Unrealized loss on derivative instruments, net of income tax benefit of $0, $178, $0, and $91, respectively
(1,717
)
 
(283
)
 
(1,283
)
 
(133
)
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of income tax (expense) of $0, $0, ($2,868) and $0, respectively
(69,169
)
 
7,486

 
(35,246
)
 
12,332

Comprehensive (loss) income
$
(57,326
)
 
$
10,592

 
$
(47,521
)
 
$
36,775


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.



4



Table of Contents



SYNEOS HEALTH, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
(In thousands, except share data)
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
171,528

 
$
321,262

Restricted cash
2,191

 
714

Accounts receivable billed, net
682,415

 
642,985

Accounts receivable unbilled
346,608

 
373,003

Contract assets
131,367

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
82,964

 
84,215

Total current assets
1,417,073

 
1,422,179

Property and equipment, net
163,500

 
180,412

Goodwill
4,275,485

 
4,292,571

Intangible assets, net
1,182,571

 
1,286,050

Deferred income tax assets
32,813

 
20,159

Other long-term assets
101,758

 
84,496

Total assets
$
7,173,200

 
$
7,285,867

 
 
 
 
LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
85,810

 
$
58,575

Accrued liabilities
502,646

 
500,303

Contract liabilities
719,932

 
559,270

Current portion of capital lease obligations
15,201

 
16,414

Current portion of long-term debt
37,500

 
25,000

Total current liabilities
1,361,089

 
1,159,562

Capital lease obligations, non-current
13,241

 
20,376

Long-term debt, non-current
2,835,321

 
2,945,934

Deferred income tax liabilities
32,557

 
37,807

Other long-term liabilities
108,320

 
99,609

Total liabilities
4,350,528

 
4,263,288

 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 17)

 

 
 
 
 
Shareholders' equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value; 30,000,000 shares authorized, 0 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value; 600,000,000 shares authorized, 102,871,399 and 104,435,501 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively
1,029

 
1,044

Additional paid-in capital
3,371,316

 
3,414,389

Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax
(55,064
)
 
(22,385
)
Accumulated deficit
(494,609
)
 
(370,469
)
Total shareholders' equity
2,822,672

 
3,022,579

Total liabilities and shareholders' equity
$
7,173,200

 
$
7,285,867


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

5



Table of Contents



SYNEOS HEALTH, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)

 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
(In thousands)
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
Net (loss) income
$
(10,992
)
 
$
24,576

Adjustments to reconcile net (loss) income to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
135,523

 
31,156

Amortization of capitalized loan fees and original issue discount, net of Senior Notes premium
(32
)
 
402

Share-based compensation
16,254

 
12,048

(Recovery of) provision for doubtful accounts
(1,734
)
 
158

Benefit from deferred income taxes
(7,682
)
 
(9,081
)
Foreign currency transaction adjustments
(19,633
)
 
5,882

Fair value adjustment of contingent tax-sharing obligation
2,388

 

Loss on extinguishment of debt
2,125

 

Other non-cash items
4,056

 
700

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of effect of business combinations:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable, unbilled services, and advanced billings
(68,629
)
 
31,868

Accounts payable and accrued expenses
(3,269
)
 
8,694

Other assets and liabilities
16,799

 
(7,977
)
Net cash provided by operating activities
65,174

 
98,426

Cash flows from investing activities:
 
 
 
Purchases of property and equipment
(32,586
)
 
(15,974
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(32,586
)
 
(15,974
)
Cash flows from financing activities:
 
 
 
Payments of debt financing costs
(3,421
)
 

Repayments of long-term debt
(97,500
)
 

Proceeds from revolving line of credit

 
15,000

Repayments of revolving line of credit

 
(40,000
)
Payments of capital leases
(8,863
)
 

Payments for repurchase of common stock
(74,985
)
 

Proceeds from exercise of stock options
7,458

 
6,251

Payments related to tax withholding for share-based compensation
(2,383
)
 
(1,179
)
Net cash used in financing activities
(179,694
)
 
(19,928
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
(1,151
)
 
4,688

Net change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
(148,257
)
 
67,212

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash - beginning of period
321,976

 
103,078

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash - end of period
$
173,719

 
$
170,290

 
 
 
 
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash investing activities:
 
 
 
Purchases of property and equipment included in liabilities
$
5,876

 
$
3,110

Vehicles acquired through capital lease agreements
$
4,589

 
$


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

6



Table of Contents



SYNEOS HEALTH, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)

1. Basis of Presentation and Changes in Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Operations
Syneos Health, Inc. (the “Company”) is a global provider of end-to-end biopharmaceutical outsourcing solutions. The Company operates under two reportable segments, Clinical Solutions and Commercial Solutions, and derives its revenue through a suite of services designed to enhance its customers’ ability to successfully develop, launch, and market their products. The Company offers its solutions on both a standalone and integrated basis with biopharmaceutical development and commercialization services ranging from Phase I-IV clinical trial services to services associated with the commercialization of biopharmaceutical products. The Company’s customers include small, mid-sized, and large companies in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device industries.
Merger
On August 1, 2017, the Company completed the merger (the “Merger”) with Double Eagle Parent, Inc. (“inVentiv”), the parent company of inVentiv Health, Inc. Upon closing, inVentiv was merged with and into the Company, with the Company continuing as the surviving corporation. Beginning August 1, 2017, inVentiv’s results of operations are included in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. For additional information related to the Merger, refer to “Note 3 - Business Combinations.”
Unaudited Interim Financial Information
The Company prepared the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information. The significant accounting policies followed by the Company for interim financial reporting are consistent with the accounting policies followed for annual financial reporting.
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, in management’s opinion, include all adjustments of a normal recurring nature necessary for a fair presentation. The information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 28, 2018. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2018 or any other future period. The unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2017 is derived from the amounts in the audited consolidated balance sheet included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”) on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method for all contracts not completed as of the date of adoption. The reported results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 reflect the application of ASC 606, while the reported results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 were prepared under ASC 605, Revenue Recognition (“ASC 605”). For additional information related to the impact of adopting this standard, refer to “Note 12 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers.”

7



Table of Contents



Statement of Cash Flows - Restricted Cash. Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash using the retrospective transition method, as required by the new standard. The adoption of this ASU had an immaterial impact to the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated statements of cash flows. The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, which sum to the total of such amounts in the consolidated statements of cash flows (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Cash and cash equivalents
$
171,528

 
$
321,262

Restricted cash
2,191

 
714

Total cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash shown in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows
$
173,719

 
$
321,976

Comprehensive Income - Reclassifications of Certain Tax Effects. Effective January 1, 2018, the Company elected to early adopt ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. Under the updated accounting guidance, the Company is allowed to reclassify the stranded tax effects within accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings in each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“Tax Act”) is recorded. Upon adoption, the Company recorded an increase to other comprehensive income of $3.9 million and a reduction in retained earnings of $3.9 million. There was no impact on prior periods.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
Leases. In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards board (“FASB”) issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases. ASU 2016-02 requires organizations to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet, including leases that were previously classified as operating leases. The ASU also requires additional disclosures about leasing arrangements related to the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The amendments in this ASU are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of the amendments is permitted and the new guidance will be applied using a modified retrospective approach. The Company continues to evaluate the impact of adopting this standard on its accounting policies, financial statements, business processes, systems and internal controls. Additionally, the Company has established a project management and implementation team consisting of internal resources and external advisors. These evaluation and implementation processes are expected to continue through 2018. The Company expects to recognize substantially all of its leases on the balance sheet by recording a right-to-use asset and a corresponding lease liability. The Company plans to adopt the standard on January 1, 2019.
2. Financial Statement Details
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Certain of the Company’s subsidiaries participate in a notional cash pooling arrangement to manage global liquidity requirements. The participants combine their cash balances in pooling accounts at the same financial institution with the ability to offset bank overdrafts of one participant against positive cash account balances held by another participant. The net cash balance related to this pooling arrangement is included in the “Cash and cash equivalents” line item in the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet. The Company’s net cash pool position consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Gross cash position
$
131,577

 
$
195,376

Less: cash borrowings
(97,508
)
 
(88,226
)
Net cash position
$
34,069

 
$
107,150


8



Table of Contents



Billed Accounts Receivable, Net
Billed accounts receivable, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Accounts receivable billed
$
689,797

 
$
652,061

Allowance for doubtful accounts
(7,382
)
 
(9,076
)
Accounts receivable billed, net
$
682,415

 
$
642,985

Accounts Receivable Factoring Arrangement
In May 2017, the Company entered into an accounts receivable factoring agreement to sell certain eligible unsecured trade accounts receivable, without recourse, to an unrelated third-party financial institution for cash. For the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company factored $100.9 million of trade accounts receivable on a non-recourse basis and received $100.5 million in cash proceeds from the sale. The fees associated with this transaction were immaterial. The Company did not sell any trade accounts receivables under this agreement during the year ended December 31, 2017.
Accounts Receivable Financing Agreement
On June 29, 2018, the Company entered into, and on August 1, 2018 amended,an accounts receivable financing agreement with a termination date of June 29, 2020, unless terminated earlier pursuant to its terms. Under this agreement, certain of the Company’s consolidated subsidiaries will sell accounts receivable and unbilled services (including contract assets) balances to a wholly-owned, bankruptcy-remote special purpose entity (“SPE”). The SPE can borrow up to $250.0 million from a third-party lender which is secured by liens on certain receivables and other assets of the SPE. The Company has guaranteed the performance of the obligations of existing and future subsidiaries that sell and service the accounts receivable under this agreement. At June 30, 2018, there were no sales of accounts receivable under the accounts receivable financing agreement and the remaining maximum capacity available was $250.0 million, which is limited by a periodic calculation of the Company’s available borrowing base. As of the date of the amendment, the borrowing capacity is determined to be approximately $218.0 million
For additional information related to the accounts receivable financing agreement, refer to “Note 4 - Long-Term Debt Obligations.”

9



Table of Contents



Goodwill
Changes in the carrying amount of goodwill by segment for the six months ended June 30, 2018 were as follows (in thousands):
 
Total
 
Clinical
Solutions
 
Commercial
Solutions
Balance at December 31, 2017:
 
 
 
 
 
Gross carrying amount
$
4,308,737

 
$
2,808,975

 
$
1,499,762

Accumulated impairment losses (a)
(16,166
)
 
(8,142
)
 
(8,024
)
Goodwill net of accumulated impairment losses
4,292,571

 
2,800,833

 
1,491,738

2018 Activity:
 
 
 
 
 
Business combinations (b)
(6,339
)
 
(3,808
)
 
(2,531
)
Impact of foreign currency translation
(10,747
)
 
(10,263
)
 
(484
)
Balance at June 30, 2018:
 
 
 
 
 
Gross carrying amount
4,291,651

 
2,794,904

 
1,496,747

Accumulated impairment losses (a)
(16,166
)
 
(8,142
)
 
(8,024
)
Goodwill net of accumulated impairment losses
$
4,275,485

 
$
2,786,762

 
$
1,488,723

(a) Accumulated impairment losses associated with the Clinical Solutions segment were recorded prior to 2018 and related to the former Phase I Services segment, now a component of the Clinical Solutions segment. Accumulated impairment losses associated with the Commercial Solutions segment were recorded prior to 2018 and related to the former Global Consulting segment, now a component of the Commercial Solutions segment. No impairment of goodwill was recorded for the six months ended June 30, 2018.
(b) Amount represents measurement period adjustments to goodwill recognized in connection with the Merger. Goodwill associated with the Merger is not deductible for income tax purposes. Refer to “Note 3 - Business Combinations” for further information.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss, Net of Tax
Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax, consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax
$
(55,166
)
 
$
(23,514
)
Unrealized gains on derivative instruments, net of tax
102

 
1,129

Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax
$
(55,064
)
 
$
(22,385
)

10



Table of Contents



Changes in accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss), net of tax for the three months ended June 30, 2018 were as follows (in thousands):
 
Unrealized gain (loss) on derivative instruments, net of tax
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax
 
Total
Balance at March 31, 2018
$
1,819

 
$
14,003

 
$
15,822

Other comprehensive loss before reclassifications
(1,396
)
 
(69,169
)
 
(70,565
)
Amount of gain reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss into statement of operations
(321
)
 

 
(321
)
Net current period other comprehensive loss, net of tax
(1,717
)
 
(69,169
)
 
(70,886
)
Balance at June 30, 2018
$
102

 
$
(55,166
)
 
$
(55,064
)
Changes in accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss), net of tax for the six months ended June 30, 2018 were as follows (in thousands):
 
Unrealized gain (loss) on derivative instruments, net of tax
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax
 
Total
Balance at December 31, 2017
$
1,129

 
$
(23,514
)
 
$
(22,385
)
Reclassification of income tax benefit due to adoption of ASU 2018-02
256

 
3,594

 
3,850

Balance at January 1, 2018
1,385

 
(19,920
)
 
(18,535
)
Other comprehensive loss before reclassifications
(685
)
 
(35,246
)
 
(35,931
)
Amount of gain reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss into the statements of operations
(598
)
 

 
(598
)
Net current period other comprehensive loss, net of tax
(1,283
)
 
(35,246
)
 
(36,529
)
Balance at June 30, 2018
$
102

 
$
(55,166
)
 
$
(55,064
)
Unrealized gains on derivative instruments represent the effective portion of gains associated with interest rate swaps. Designated as cash flow hedges, the interest rate swaps limit the variable interest rate exposure associated with the Company’s term loans. The Company reclassifies these gains into net income as it makes interest payments on its term loan. Amounts to be reclassified to net income in the next 12 months are expected to be immaterial.
For the three months ended June 30, 2018, income tax provision related to the components of other comprehensive loss was fully offset by the increase in the valuation allowance resulting in no tax impact for the period.
The tax effects allocated to each component of other comprehensive loss for the six months ended June 30, 2018 were as follows (in thousands):
 
Before-Tax Amount
 
Tax (Expense) Benefit
 
Net-of-Tax Amount
Foreign currency translation adjustments
$
(32,378
)
 
$
(2,868
)
 
$
(35,246
)
Unrealized loss on derivative instruments:
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized loss arising during period
(685
)
 

 
(685
)
Reclassification adjustment of realized gains to net income
(598
)
 

 
(598
)
Net unrealized loss on derivative instruments
(1,283
)
 

 
(1,283
)
Other comprehensive loss
$
(33,661
)
 
$
(2,868
)
 
$
(36,529
)

11



Table of Contents



The tax effects allocated to each component of other comprehensive income for the three months ended June 30, 2017 were as follows (in thousands):
 
Before-Tax Amount
 
Tax (Expense) or Benefit
 
Net-of-Tax Amount
Foreign currency translation adjustments
$
7,486

 
$

 
$
7,486

Unrealized gain (loss) on derivative instruments:
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain (loss) arising during period
(271
)
 
105

 
(166
)
Reclassification adjustment for gains realized in net income
(190
)
 
73

 
(117
)
Net unrealized gain (loss) on derivative instruments
(461
)
 
178

 
(283
)
Other comprehensive income
$
7,025

 
$
178

 
$
7,203

The tax effects allocated to each component of other comprehensive income for the six months ended June 30, 2017 were as follows (in thousands):
 
Before-Tax Amount
 
Tax (Expense) Benefit
 
Net-of-Tax Amount
Foreign currency translation adjustments
$
12,332

 
$

 
$
12,332

Unrealized gain (loss) on derivative instruments:
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain (loss) arising during the period
34

 
(7
)
 
27

Reclassification adjustment of realized gains to net income
(258
)
 
98

 
(160
)
Net unrealized gain (loss) on derivative instruments
(224
)
 
91

 
(133
)
Other comprehensive income
$
12,108

 
$
91

 
$
12,199

Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Net realized foreign currency gain (loss)
$
5,685

 
$
(3,482
)
 
$
168

 
$
(4,152
)
Net unrealized foreign currency gain (loss)
25,997

 
(3,175
)
 
19,633

 
(5,882
)
Other, net
319

 
(97
)
 
(354
)
 
(177
)
Total other income (expense), net
$
32,001

 
$
(6,754
)
 
$
19,447

 
$
(10,211
)
3. Business Combinations
Transaction Overview
On August 1, 2017 (the “Merger Date”), the Company completed the Merger with inVentiv with the Company surviving as the accounting and legal entity acquirer. The Merger was accounted for as a business combination using the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations. The purchase price has been preliminarily allocated to the tangible assets and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their fair values. The excess of the purchase price over the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed has been recorded as goodwill. The goodwill in connection with the Merger is primarily attributable to the assembled workforce of inVentiv and the expected synergies of the Merger.
In connection with the Merger, the Company assumed certain contingent tax-sharing obligations of inVentiv. The fair value of the contingent tax-sharing liability is remeasured at the end of each reporting period, with changes in the estimated fair value reflected in earnings until the liability is fully settled. The estimated fair value of the contingent tax-sharing obligation liability was $52.9 million and $50.5 million as

12



Table of Contents



of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. The liability is included in the “Accrued liabilities” and “Other long-term liabilities” line items of the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets.
The results of inVentiv’s operations have been included in the Company’s statements of operations since the Merger Date. Computing separate measures of inVentiv’s stand-alone revenue and profitability for the period after the Merger Date is impracticable.
Allocation of Consideration Transferred
The fair value of the consideration transferred on the Merger Date was $4.51 billion. The following table summarizes the preliminary allocation of the consideration transferred based on management’s estimates of Merger Date fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the identifiable net assets acquired recorded as goodwill (in thousands):     
 
June 30, 2018
Assets acquired:
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
57,338

Restricted cash
433

Accounts receivable
367,595

Unbilled accounts receivable
261,585

Other current assets
95,506

Property and equipment
113,674

Intangible assets
1,334,200

Other assets
50,052

Total assets acquired
2,280,383

Liabilities assumed:
 
Accounts payable
38,072

Accrued liabilities
304,341

Contract liabilities
247,474

Capital leases
40,928

Long-term debt, current and non-current
737,872

Deferred income taxes, net
11,988

Other liabilities
121,241

Total liabilities assumed
1,501,916

Total identifiable assets acquired, net
778,467

Goodwill
$
3,727,156

The goodwill recognized in connection with the Merger was $3.73 billion, with $2.24 billion of the goodwill assigned to the Clinical Solutions segment and $1.49 billion assigned to the Commercial Solutions segment. Goodwill generated in the Merger is not deductible for income tax purposes. The Company’s assessment of fair value and purchase price allocation are preliminary and subject to change upon completion of the measurement period. During the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company made adjustments to the preliminary fair value of acquired assets and assumed liabilities to reflect additional information obtained in connection with the Merger. The net effect of the adjustments resulted in a decrease to goodwill of $6.3 million. Further adjustments may be necessary as additional information related to the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed is assessed during the measurement period (up to one year from the Merger Date).

13



Table of Contents



Unaudited Pro Forma Financial Information
The following unaudited pro forma financial information was derived from the historical financial statements of the Company and inVentiv and presents the combined results of operations as if the Merger had occurred on January 1, 2016. The pro forma financial information is presented for comparative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of the results that would have actually occurred had the Merger been completed on January 1, 2016. In addition, the unaudited pro forma financial information does not give effect to any anticipated cost savings, operating efficiencies or other synergies that may result from the Merger, or any estimated costs that have been or will be incurred by the Company to integrate the assets and operations of inVentiv. Consequently, actual future results of the Company will differ from the unaudited pro forma financial information presented.
 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2017
 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2017
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
Pro forma total revenue
$
1,054,348

 
$
2,119,311

Pro forma net income
4,180

 
7,299

Pro forma income per share:
 
 
 
   Basic
$
0.04

 
$
0.07

   Diluted
$
0.04

 
$
0.07

The unaudited pro forma adjustments primarily relate to the depreciation of acquired property and equipment, amortization of acquired intangible assets and interest expense and amortization of deferred financing costs related to the new financing arrangements. In addition, the unaudited pro forma net income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 was adjusted to exclude $22.7 million, net of tax effects, of nonrecurring merger-related transaction costs.
4. Long-Term Debt Obligations
The Company’s debt obligations consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Secured Debt
 
 
 
Term Loan A due August 2022
$
987,500

 
$
1,000,000

Term Loan B due August 2024
1,465,000

 
1,550,000

Revolving credit facility due August 2022

 

Accounts receivable financing agreement due June 2020

 

Total secured debt
2,452,500

 
2,550,000

Unsecured Debt
 
 
 
7.5% Senior Unsecured Notes due 2024
403,000

 
403,000

Total debt obligations
2,855,500

 
2,953,000

Add: unamortized Senior Notes premium, net of original issue debt discount
34,181

 
38,656

Less: unamortized deferred issuance costs
(16,860
)
 
(20,722
)
Less: current portion of debt
(37,500
)
 
(25,000
)
Total debt obligations, non-current portion
$
2,835,321

 
$
2,945,934

During the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company made voluntary prepayments of $85.0 million which were applied against the regularly-scheduled quarterly principal payments of the Term Loan B. As a result, the Company is not required to make a mandatory payment against the Term Loan B principal balance until maturity in August 2024. Additionally, during the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company made mandatory principal payments of $12.5 million towards its Term Loan A.

14



Table of Contents



Repricing Amendment to Credit Agreement
On May 4, 2018, the Company entered into Amendment No. 1 (the “Repricing Amendment”) to the Credit Agreement dated August 1, 2017 (the “2017 Credit Agreement”), which, among other things, modified the terms of the 2017 Credit Agreement to: (i) reduce by 0.25% overall the applicable margins for alternate base rate (“Base Rate”) loans and Adjusted Eurocurrency Rate (“Eurocurrency Rate”) loans with respect to both Term Loan A and Term Loan B; and (ii) reset the period in which a prepayment premium with respect to Term Loan B is required for a “Repricing Transaction” (as defined in the Credit Agreement) to six months after the closing date of the Repricing Amendment.
The applicable margins with respect to Base Rate and Eurocurrency Rate borrowings are determined depending on the “First Lien Leverage Ratio” or the "Secured Net Leverage Ratio" (as defined in the Repricing Amendment) and range as follows:
 
Base Rate
 
Eurocurrency Rate
Term Loan A
0.25
%
-
0.50%
 
1.25
%
-
1.50%
Term Loan B
0.75
%
-
1.00%
 
1.75
%
-
2.00%
Accounts Receivable Financing Agreement
On June 29, 2018 the Company entered into, and on August 1, 2018 amended, an accounts receivable financing agreement with a termination date of June 29, 2020, unless terminated earlier pursuant to its terms. Loans under this agreement will accrue interest at a reserve-adjusted LIBOR rate or a base rate equal to the highest of (i) the applicable lender’s prime rate, and (ii) the federal funds rate plus 0.50%. The Company may prepay loans upon one business day prior notice and may terminate or reduce the facility limit of the accounts receivable financing agreement with 15 days’ prior notice.
At June 30, 2018, the remaining maximum capacity available under the accounts receivable financing agreement was $250.0 million, which is limited by a periodic calculation of the Company’s available borrowing base. As of the date of the amendment, the borrowing capacity is determined to be approximately $218.0 million
5. Derivative Financial Instruments
In May 2016, the Company entered into interest rate swaps with a combined notional value of $300.0 million in an effort to limit its exposure to variable interest rates on its Term Loans. Interest began accruing on the swaps on June 30, 2016 and a portion of the interest rate swaps expired on June 30, 2018, with the remainder expiring on May 14, 2020. As of June 30, 2018, the remaining notional value of these interest rate swaps was $100.0 million.
In June 2018, the Company entered into two new interest rate swaps with multiple counterparties in an effort to limit its exposure to variable interest rates on its Term Loans. The first interest rate swap has an aggregate notional value of $1.22 billion, began accruing interest on June 29, 2018, and will expire on December 31, 2018. The second interest rate swap has an aggregate notional value of $1.01 billion, an effective date of December 31, 2018, and will expire on June 30, 2021. 
The material terms of these derivatives are substantially the same as those contained within the 2017 Credit Agreement, including monthly settlements with the swap counterparty.

15



Table of Contents



The fair values of the Company’s interest rate swaps designated as cash flow hedging instruments and the line items on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets to which they were recorded are as follows (in thousands):
 
Balance Sheet Classification
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
Interest rate swaps - current
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
$
1,293

 
$
916

Interest rate swaps - non-current
Other long-term assets
 
$
1,307

 
$
1,263

Interest rate swaps - current
Accrued liabilities
 
$
(1,590
)
 
$

Interest rate swaps - non-current
Other long-term liabilities
 
$
(343
)
 
$

The amounts of hedge ineffectiveness recorded in net income during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and June 30, 2017 were immaterial and were attributable to inconsistencies in certain terms between the interest rate swaps and the 2017 Credit Agreement.
6. Fair Value Measurements
Assets and Liabilities Carried at Fair Value
As of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company’s financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value included cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, trading securities, billed and unbilled accounts receivable, contract assets, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, contract liabilities, assumed contingent tax-sharing obligations, capital leases, and interest rate derivative instruments.
The fair value of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, billed and unbilled accounts receivable, contract assets, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and contract liabilities approximates their respective carrying amounts because of the liquidity and short-term nature of these financial instruments.
Financial Instruments Subject to Recurring Fair Value Measurements

As of June 30, 2018, the fair values of the major classes of the Company’s assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis were as follows (in thousands):
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trading securities
$
16,578

 
$

 
$

 
$
16,578

Derivative instruments

 
2,600

 

 
2,600

Total assets
$
16,578

 
$
2,600

 
$

 
$
19,178

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Derivative instruments
$

 
$
1,933

 
$

 
$
1,933

Contingent tax-sharing obligations assumed through business combinations

 

 
52,868

 
52,868

Total liabilities
$

 
$
1,933

 
$
52,868

 
$
54,801


16



Table of Contents



As of December 31, 2017, the fair values of the major classes of the Company’s assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis were as follows (in thousands):
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trading securities
$
16,318

 
$

 
$

 
$
16,318

Derivative instruments

 
2,179

 

 
2,179

Total assets
$
16,318

 
$
2,179

 
$

 
$
18,497

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Contingent tax-sharing obligations assumed through business combinations
$

 
$

 
$
50,480

 
$
50,480

Total liabilities
$

 
$

 
$
50,480

 
$
50,480

The following table presents changes in the carrying amount of contingent tax-sharing obligations classified as Level 3 category within the fair value hierarchy for the six months ended June 30, 2018 (in thousands):
Balance at December 31, 2017
$
50,480

Changes in fair value recognized in earnings
2,388

Payments

Balance at June 30, 2018
$
52,868

During the six months ended June 30, 2018, there were no transfers of assets or liabilities between Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3 fair value measurements.
Financial Instruments Subject to Non-Recurring Fair Value Measurements
Certain assets, including goodwill and identifiable intangible assets, are carried on the balance sheets at cost and, subsequent to initial recognition, are measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis when certain identified events or changes in circumstances that may have a significant adverse effect on the carrying values of these assets occur. These assets are classified as Level 3 fair value measurements within the fair value hierarchy. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate a triggering event has occurred. Intangible assets are tested for impairment upon the occurrence of certain triggering events. As of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, assets subject to non-recurring fair value measurements totaled $5.46 billion and $5.58 billion, respectively.
Fair Value Disclosures for Debt Not Carried at Fair Value
The estimated fair value of the outstanding term loans and Senior Unsecured Notes is determined based on the price that the Company would have to pay to settle the liabilities. As these liabilities are not actively traded, they are classified as Level 2 fair value measurements. The estimated fair values of the Company’s outstanding term loans and Senior Unsecured Notes were as follows (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
Carrying Value (a)
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
Carrying Value (a)
 
Estimated Fair Value
Term Loan A due August 2022
$
985,441

 
$
987,500

 
$
1,000,000

 
$
1,000,000

Term Loan B due August 2024
1,463,386

 
1,465,000

 
1,548,149

 
1,550,000

7.5% Senior Unsecured Notes due 2024
440,854

 
430,203

 
443,507

 
433,729

(a) The carrying value of the term loan debt is shown net of original issue debt discounts. The carrying value of the 7.5% Senior Unsecured Notes is inclusive of unamortized premiums.

17



Table of Contents



7. Restructuring and Other Costs
Merger-Related Restructuring
In connection with the Merger, the Company established a restructuring plan to eliminate redundant positions and reduce its facility footprint worldwide. The Company expects to continue the ongoing evaluations of its workforce and facilities infrastructure needs through 2020 in an effort to optimize its resources. Additionally, in conjunction with the Merger, the Company assumed certain liabilities related to employee severance and facility closure costs as a result of actions taken by inVentiv prior to the Merger. During the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company recognized approximately: (i) $11.3 million of employee severance and benefits related costs; (ii) $4.8 million of facility closure and lease termination costs; and (iii) $0.5 million of other costs related to the Merger. Over the next several years, the Company expects to incur significant costs related to the restructuring of its operations in order to achieve targeted synergies from the Merger. The timing and the amount of these costs and related benefits may differ significantly from current management’s estimates and depends on various factors, including, but not limited to, identifying and realizing synergy opportunities and executing the integration of the Company’s operations.
Other Restructuring
During the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company incurred $1.4 million of facility closure and lease termination costs related to the Company’s pre-Merger activities aimed at optimizing its resources worldwide. Additionally, during the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company recognized: (i) approximately $2.5 million of consulting costs related to the restructuring of its contract management processes to meet the requirements of the newly adopted revenue recognition accounting standard; (ii) $1.0 million of employee severance and benefits related costs; and (iii) $0.8 million of other restructuring costs.
Accrued Restructuring Liabilities
The following table summarizes activity related to the liabilities associated with restructuring and other costs during the six months ended June 30, 2018 (in thousands):
 
Employee Severance Costs, Including Executive Transition Costs
 
Facility Closure and Lease Termination Costs
 
Other Costs
 
Total
Balance at December 31, 2017
$
8,858

 
$
7,411

 
$
524

 
$
16,793

Expenses incurred(a)
12,180

 
3,108

 
3,276

 
18,564

Cash payments made
(13,429
)
 
(4,607
)
 
(3,665
)
 
(21,701
)
Balance at June 30, 2018
$
7,609

 
$
5,912

 
$
135

 
$
13,656

(a) The amount of expenses incurred presented in the reconciliation of accrued restructuring liabilities excludes $3.7 million of non-cash restructuring and other expenses incurred for the six months ended June 30, 2018 because these expenses were not subject to accrual prior to the period in which they were incurred.
The Company expects that substantially all of the employee severance costs accrued as of June 30, 2018 will be paid within the next twelve months. Certain facility costs will be paid over the remaining terms of exited facility leases, which range from 2018 through 2027. Liabilities associated with these costs are included in the “Accrued liabilities” and “Other long-term liabilities” line items in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets. Restructuring and other costs included in net income (loss) for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 are presented in the “Restructuring and other costs” line item in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.

18



Table of Contents



8. Shareholders' Equity
2018 Stock Repurchase Program
On February 26, 2018, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to an aggregate of $250.0 million of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, to be executed from time to time in open market transactions effected through a broker at prevailing market prices, in block trades or through privately negotiated transactions (“2018 stock repurchase program”). The 2018 stock repurchase program commenced on March 1, 2018 and will end no later than December 31, 2019. The Company intends to use cash on hand and future operating cash flow to fund the stock repurchase program.
The 2018 stock repurchase program does not obligate the Company to repurchase any particular amount of the Company’s common stock and may be modified, extended, suspended, or discontinued at any time. The timing and amount of repurchases will be determined by the Company’s management based on a variety of factors such as the market price of the Company’s common stock, the Company’s corporate requirements for cash, and overall market conditions. The stock repurchase program will be subject to applicable legal requirements, including federal and state securities laws. The Company may also repurchase shares of its common stock pursuant to a trading plan meeting the requirements of Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which would permit shares of the Company’s common stock to be repurchased when the Company might otherwise be precluded from doing so by law.
In March 2018, the Company repurchased 948,100 shares of its common stock in open market transactions at an average price of $39.55 per share, resulting in a total purchase price of approximately $37.5 million. In April 2018, the Company repurchased 1,024,400 shares of its common stock in open market transactions at an average price of $36.60 per share, resulting in a total purchase price of approximately $37.5 million. The Company immediately retired all of the repurchased common stock and charged the par value of the shares to common stock. The excess of the repurchase price over par was applied on a pro rata basis against additional paid-in-capital, with the remainder applied to accumulated deficit.
As of June 30, 2018, the Company has remaining authorization to repurchase up to approximately $175.0 million of shares of its common stock under the 2018 stock repurchase program.
9. Share-Based Compensation
Restricted Stock Unit Award Activity
The following table summarizes the RSU activity during the six months ended June 30, 2018:
 
Number of Shares
 
Weighted Average
Grant Date Fair Value
Non-vested at December 31, 2017
907,580

 
$
49.30

Granted
1,858,183

 
$
38.32

Vested
(187,400
)
 
$
49.64

Forfeited
(203,310
)
 
$
47.38

Non-vested at June 30, 2018
2,375,053

 
$
40.85

At June 30, 2018, total unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested RSUs was $77.1 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.4 years.

19



Table of Contents



2018 Performance-Based RSU Awards
During 2018, the Compensation Committee of the Company’s Board of Directors granted performance-based RSU awards (“PRSUs”) to certain executive officers. The total target number of PRSUs granted was 198,382 which will vest in a percentage ranging from 0% to 150% depending on the level of achievement of the performance targets. Each award is scheduled to cliff-vest approximately three years from the grant date and consists of three equal tranches with each tranche being conditional upon: (i) the attainment of performance targets related to the Company’s revenue growth for fiscal years 2018, 2019, and 2020; and (ii) the continued employment and service of the employee from the grant date through the date when determination of the target attainment level for the last performance period is made. The Company recognizes share-based compensation expense for PRSUs when attainment of each performance target becomes probable.

Share-based Compensation Expense
The total amount of share-based compensation expense recognized in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations was as follows (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
Statement of Operations Classification
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Direct costs
$
5,572

 
$
2,954

 
$
9,324

 
$
5,667

Selling, general, and administrative expenses
2,803

 
3,275

 
6,839

 
6,381

Restructuring and other costs

 

 
91

 

Total share-based compensation expense
$
8,375

 
$
6,229

 
$
16,254

 
$
12,048

10. Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding plus the effect of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period. A reconciliation of the numerators and denominators of the basic and diluted per share computations of weighted average common shares outstanding based on the Company’s consolidated net income (loss) is as follows (in thousands, except per share amounts):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Numerator:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
13,560

 
$
3,389

 
$
(10,992
)
 
$
24,576

Denominator:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic weighted average common shares outstanding
102,899

 
54,123

 
103,674

 
54,069

Effect of dilutive securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stock options and other awards under deferred share-based compensation programs
1,106

 
1,184

 

 
1,146

Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding
104,005

 
55,307

 
103,674

 
55,215

Earnings (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.13

 
$
0.06

 
$
(0.11
)
 
$
0.45

Diluted
$
0.13

 
$
0.06

 
$
(0.11
)
 
$
0.45


20



Table of Contents



Potential common shares outstanding that are considered antidilutive are excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share. Potential common shares related to stock options and other awards under deferred share-based compensation programs may be determined to be antidilutive based on the application of the treasury stock method. Potential common shares are also considered antidilutive in the event of net loss from operations.
The number of potential shares outstanding that were considered antidilutive using the treasury stock method and therefore excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share, weighted for the portion of the period they were outstanding are as follows (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Anti-dilutive stock options and other awards
1,017

 
431

 
1,057

 
670

Anti-dilutive stock options and other awards under deferred share-based compensation programs excluded based on reporting of net loss for the period

 

 
1,002

 

Total common stock equivalents excluded from diluted earnings per share computation
1,017

 
431

 
2,059

 
670

11. Income Taxes
Income Tax (Expense) Benefit
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company recorded income tax expense of $16.0 million and $7.1 million, compared to pre-tax income of $29.6 million and pre-tax loss of $3.9 million, respectively. The effective tax rate for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 varied from the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate of 21.0% primarily due to: (i) research tax credits in foreign jurisdictions; (ii) a valuation allowance change on domestic deferred tax assets; and (iii) the geographical split of pre-tax income.
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, the Company recorded an income tax benefit of $3.0 million and an income tax expense of $4.1 million, compared to pre-tax income of $0.4 million and $28.7 million, respectively. The Company’s effective tax rate for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 was lower than the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate of 35.0% primarily due to: (i) the relative amount of income from operations earned in international jurisdictions with lower statutory income tax rates compared to the United States; (ii) research tax credits; and (iii) discrete tax adjustments related to excess tax benefits on share-based compensation payments.
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
The Company’s accounting for the effects of the Tax Act is incomplete as of June 30, 2018. However, as discussed in “Note 12 - Income Taxes” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, the Company was able to reasonably estimate certain effects and, therefore, recorded provisional adjustments associated with the deemed repatriation transition tax and remeasurement of net deferred tax assets. The Company did not make any additional measurement-period adjustments related to these items during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, because the Company has not completed its analysis of the computation’s components, including: (i) the amount of foreign earnings subject to the U.S. income tax; (ii) the portion of foreign earnings held in cash or other specified assets; and (iii) the state tax treatment of the provisions of the Tax Act. The Company is continuing to gather additional information for these items and expects to complete its accounting within the prescribed measurement period.

21



Table of Contents



12. Revenue from Contracts with Customers
Service Revenue
The Company adopted ASC 606 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers and all related amendments (“new revenue standard” or “ASC 606”) on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method for all contracts not completed as of the date of adoption. The reported results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 reflect the application of ASC 606, while the reported results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 were prepared under ASC 605 - Revenue Recognition and other authoritative guidance in effect for those periods. In accordance with ASC 606, revenue is now recognized when, or as, a customer obtains control of promised services. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for these services.
A performance obligation is a promise (or a combination of promises) in a contract to transfer distinct goods or services to a customer and is the unit of accounting under ASC 606 for the purposes of revenue recognition. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each separate performance obligation based upon the standalone selling price and is recognized as revenue, when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. The majority of the Company’s contracts have a single performance obligation because the promise to transfer individual services is not separately identifiable from other promises in the contracts, and therefore, is not distinct. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, the contract’s transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation using the best estimate of the standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract.
The majority of the Company's revenue arrangements are service contracts that range in duration from a few months to several years. Substantially all of the Company’s performance obligations, and associated revenue, are transferred to the customer over time. The Company generally receives compensation based on measuring progress toward completion using anticipated project budgets for direct labor and prices for each service offering. The Company is also reimbursed for certain third party pass-through and out-of-pocket costs. In addition, in certain instances a customer contract may include forms of variable consideration such as incentive fees, volume rebates or other provisions that can increase or decrease the transaction price. This variable consideration is generally awarded upon achievement of certain performance metrics, program milestones or cost targets. For the purposes of revenue recognition, variable consideration is assessed on a contract-by-contract basis and the amount to be recorded is estimated based on the assessment of the Company’s anticipated performance and consideration of all information that is reasonably available. Variable consideration is recognized as revenue if and when it is deemed probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved in the future.
Most of the Company's contracts can be terminated by the customer without cause with a 30-day notice. In the event of termination, the Company's contracts generally provide that the customer pay the Company for: (i) fees earned through the termination date; (ii) fees and expenses for winding down the project, which include both fees incurred and actual expenses; (iii) non-cancellable expenditures; and (iv) in some cases, a fee to cover a portion of the remaining professional fees on the project. The Company’s long term clinical trial contracts contain implied substantive termination penalties because of the significant wind-down cost of terminating a clinical trial. These provisions for termination penalties result in these types of contracts being treated as long-term for revenue recognition purposes.
Changes in the scope of work are common, especially under long-term contracts, and generally result in a renegotiation of future contract pricing terms and change in contract transaction price. If the customer does not agree to a contract modification, the Company could bear the risk of cost overruns. Most of the Company’s contract modifications are for services that are not distinct from the services under the existing contract due to the significant integration service provided in the context of the contract and therefore result in a cumulative catch-up adjustment to revenue at the date of contract modification.

22



Table of Contents



Contract Assets and Liabilities
Contract assets include unbilled amounts typically resulting from revenue recognized in excess of the amounts billed to the customer for which the right to payment is subject to factors other than the passage of time. These amounts may not exceed their net realizable value. Contract assets are generally classified as current. Contract liabilities consist of customer payments received in advance of performance and billings in excess of revenue recognized, net of revenue recognized from the balance at the beginning of the period. Contract assets and liabilities are presented on the balance sheet on a net contract-by-contract basis at the end of each reporting period.
Capitalized Costs
The Company capitalizes certain costs associated with commissions and bonuses paid to its employees in the Clinical Solutions segment because these costs are incurred in obtaining contracts that have a term greater than one year. Capitalized costs are included in the “Prepaid expenses and other current assets” and “Other long-term assets” line items of the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company amortizes these costs in a manner that is consistent with the pattern of revenue recognition described below. The Company expenses obtainment costs for contracts that have a term of one year or less.
Additionally, certain recruiting and training costs within the selling solutions services offering are incurred prior to deployment of the contract field promotion teams that are reimbursed by the customer. These costs are capitalized and amortized ratably from the deployment date through the end of the accounting contract term. Capitalized costs and the related amortization are as follows (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
Capitalized costs incurred to obtain or fulfill contracts with customers
$
20,389

 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2018
 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2018
Amortization of capitalized costs
$
4,568

 
$
7,702

Clinical Solutions
The Company’s Clinical Solutions segment provides solutions to address the clinical development needs of customers. The Company provides biopharmaceutical program development services through the Full Service Clinical Development (“Full Service”) platform, discrete services for any part of a customer clinical trial through a Functional Service Provider (“FSP”) offering, Early Stage services, and Real World and Late Phase services. The services provided via the Full Service platform generally span several years and a significant benefit to the customer is provided by integrating those services provided by the Company’s employees as well as those performed by third parties.
Because the Company provides a significant benefit to the customer of integrating the services provided by the Full Service offering, there is one performance obligation for revenue recognition purposes. Revenue is recognized over time using an input measure of progress. The input measure reflects costs (including investigator payments and pass-through costs) incurred to date relative to total estimated costs to complete (“cost-to-cost measure of progress”). Under the cost-to-cost measure of progress methodology, revenue is recorded proportionally to costs incurred. Contract costs principally include direct labor, investigator payments, and pass-through costs.
The remaining service offerings within the Clinical Solutions segment are generally short-term, month-to-month contracts, time and materials basis contracts, or provide a series of distinct services that are substantially the same and have the same pattern of transfer to the customer (“series”). As such, revenue for these service offerings is generally recognized as services are performed for the amount the Company estimates it is entitled to for the period, similar to the pattern of recognition under ASC 605. For

23



Table of Contents



contracts billed on a fixed price basis, revenue is recognized over time based on the proportion of labor costs expended to total labor costs expected to complete the contract performance obligation.
The estimate of total revenue and costs at completion requires significant judgment. Contract estimates are based on various assumptions to project future outcomes of events that often span several years. These estimates are reviewed periodically and any adjustments are recognized on a cumulative catch up basis in the period they become known.
Unsatisfied Performance Obligations
As of June 30, 2018, the total aggregate transaction price allocated to the unsatisfied performance obligations under contracts with a contract term greater than one year and which are not accounted for as a series pursuant to ASC 606 was $5.10 billion. This amount includes revenue associated with reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses. The Company expects to recognize revenue over the remaining contract term of the individual projects, with contract terms generally ranging from one to five years. The amount of unsatisfied performance obligations is presented net of any constraints and as a result, is lower than the potential contractual revenue. Specifically, contracts that do not commence within a certain period of time require the Company to undertake numerous activities to fulfill these performance obligations, including various activities that are outside of the Company’s control. Accordingly, such contracts have been excluded from the unsatisfied performance obligations balance presented above.
Commercial Solutions
The Company’s Commercial Solutions segment provides a broad suite of complementary commercialization services including selling solutions, communications (advertising and public relations), and consulting services. The largest of the service offerings within the Commercial Solutions segment relates to selling solutions. Selling solutions contracts are comprised of a single performance obligation that represents a series of daily outsourced detailing services to promote and sell commercial products on behalf of a customer.
The remaining Commercial Solutions contracts are generally short-term, month-to-month contracts or time and materials contracts. As such, Commercial Solutions revenue is generally recognized as services are performed for the amount the Company estimates it is entitled to for the period, similar to the pattern of recognition under ASC 605. For contracts billed on a fixed price basis, revenue is recognized over time based on the proportion of labor costs expended to total labor costs expected to complete the contract performance obligation.
Pass-through and out-of-pocket costs are recognized in service revenue in the unaudited condensed consolidated income statement as incurred. Certain media purchases and the related reimbursements are recorded on a net basis in the unaudited condensed consolidated income statement as such activities are controlled by the customer.
The Commercial Solutions segment does not have material unsatisfied performance obligations that are required to be disclosed under ASC 606 because the contracts are short-term in nature or represent a series pursuant to ASC 606.
Timing of Billing and Performance
Differences in the timing of revenue recognition and associated billings and cash collections result in recording of billed accounts receivable, unbilled accounts receivable, contract assets and contract liabilities on the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet. Amounts are billed as work progresses in accordance with agreed-upon contractual terms either at periodic intervals or upon achievement of contractual milestones. Billings generally occur subsequent to revenue recognition, resulting in recording of: (i) unbilled accounts receivable in instances where the right to bill is contingent solely on the passage of time (e.g., in the following month); and (ii) contract assets in instances where the right to bill is associated with a contingency (e.g., achievement of a milestone). Cash payments received

24



Table of Contents



in advance of the Company’s performance result in recording of contract liabilities, which are liquidated as revenue is recognized.
Contract assets and liabilities are recorded net on a contract-by-contract basis at the end of each reporting period.
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company recognized approximately $207.3 million and $382.5 million, respectively, of revenue that was included in the contract liabilities balance at the beginning of the period. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, approximately $12.6 million and $27.5 million of the Company’s revenue recognized was allocated to performance obligations partially satisfied in previous periods and predominately related to revenue from approved change orders (contract modifications). Changes in the contract assets and liabilities balances during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 were not materially impacted by any other factors.
Impact of Adopting ASC 606
The Company adopted ASC 606 using the modified retrospective method. The cumulative effect of applying the new guidance to all contracts with customers that were not completed as of January 1, 2018 was recorded as an adjustment to accumulated deficit as of the adoption date, with the impact primarily related to the performance obligations related to the Full Service customer clinical trials in the Clinical Solutions segment.

25



Table of Contents



As a result of applying the modified retrospective method to adopt the new accounting guidance, the following adjustments were made to the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2018 (in thousands):
 
As Reported
 
Adjustments
 
Adjusted
 
December 31, 2017
 
ASC 606 Adoption
 
January 1, 2018
ASSETS
 
 
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
321,262

 
$

 
$
321,262

Restricted cash
714

 

 
714

Accounts receivable billed, net
642,985

 

 
642,985

Accounts receivable unbilled
373,003

 
(152,644
)
 
220,359

Contract assets

 
94,567

 
94,567

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
84,215

 
19,452

 
103,667

Total current assets
1,422,179

 
(38,625
)
 
1,383,554

Property and equipment, net
180,412

 

 
180,412

Goodwill
4,292,571

 

 
4,292,571

Intangible assets, net
1,286,050

 

 
1,286,050

Deferred income tax assets
20,159

 
5,857

 
26,016

Other long-term assets
84,496

 
12,601

 
97,097

Total assets
$
7,285,867

 
$
(20,167
)
 
$
7,265,700

 
 
 
 
 
 
LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY
 

 
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
58,575

 
$

 
$
58,575

Accrued liabilities
500,303

 
49,611

 
549,914

Contract liabilities
559,270

 
34,075

 
593,345

Current portion of capital lease obligations
16,414

 

 
16,414

Current portion of long-term debt
25,000

 

 
25,000

Total current liabilities
1,159,562

 
83,686

 
1,243,248

Capital lease obligations, non-current
20,376

 

 
20,376

Long-term debt, non-current
2,945,934

 

 
2,945,934

Deferred income tax liabilities
37,807

 
(8,355
)
 
29,452

Other long-term liabilities
99,609

 
3,317

 
102,926

Total liabilities
4,263,288

 
78,648

 
4,341,936

Shareholders' equity:
 
 
 
 
 
Preferred stock

 

 

Common stock
1,044

 

 
1,044

Additional paid-in capital
3,414,389

 

 
3,414,389

Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax
(22,385
)
 

 
(22,385
)
Accumulated deficit
(370,469
)
 
(98,815
)
 
(469,284
)
Total shareholders' equity
3,022,579

 
(98,815
)
 
2,923,764

Total liabilities and shareholders' equity
$
7,285,867

 
$
(20,167
)
 
$
7,265,700


26



Table of Contents



The following table compares the reported unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 to the amounts as if the previous revenue recognition guidance remained in effect for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 (in thousands, except per share amounts):
 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2018
 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2018
 
ASC 606
As Reported
 
ASC 605
As Adjusted
 
ASC 606
As Reported
 
ASC 605
As Adjusted
Service revenue
$
1,072,530

 
$
796,461

 
$
2,129,726

 
$
1,556,519

Reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses

 
299,445

 

 
609,543

Total revenue
1,072,530

 
1,095,906

 
2,129,726

 
2,166,062

Direct costs (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)
547,993

 
548,122

 
1,080,050

 
1,085,010

Reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses
299,472

 
299,445

 
608,238

 
609,543

Selling, general, and administrative
100,218

 
100,813

 
199,477

 
200,529

Restructuring and other costs
8,591

 
8,591

 
22,298

 
22,298

Transaction and integration-related expenses
18,032

 
18,032

 
43,243

 
43,243

Depreciation
17,557

 
17,557

 
35,585

 
35,585

Amortization
49,945

 
49,945

 
99,938

 
99,938

Total operating expenses
1,041,808

 
1,042,505

 
2,088,829

 
2,096,146

Income from operations
30,722

 
53,401

 
40,897

 
69,916

Other expense, net:
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
Interest income
1,655

 
1,655

 
2,494

 
2,494

Interest expense
(32,894
)
 
(32,894
)
 
(64,630
)
 
(64,630
)
Loss on extinguishment of debt
(1,877
)
 
(1,877
)
 
(2,125
)
 
(2,125
)
Other income, net
32,001

 
32,001

 
19,447

 
19,447

Total other expense, net
(1,115
)
 
(1,115
)
 
(44,814
)
 
(44,814
)
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
29,607

 
52,286

 
(3,917
)
 
25,102

Income tax expense
(16,047
)
 
(21,553
)
 
(7,075
)
 
(13,376
)
Net income (loss)
$
13,560

 
$
30,733

 
$
(10,992
)
 
$
11,726

Earnings (loss) per share attributable to common shareholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.13

 
$
0.30

 
$
(0.11
)
 
$
0.11

Diluted
$
0.13

 
$
0.30

 
$
(0.11
)
 
$
0.11

Weighted average common shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
102,899

 
102,899

 
103,674

 
103,674

Diluted
104,005

 
104,005

 
103,674

 
104,676


27



Table of Contents



The following is a summary of the significant changes in the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations as a result of adopting ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, compared to the amounts as if the Company had continued to report its results under ASC 605:
ASC 606 delayed the recognition of revenue principally related to Full Service customer clinical trials in the Company’s Clinical Solutions segment for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 as revenue was previously recognized when contractual items (i.e. “units”) were delivered or on a proportional performance basis, generally using output measures of progress specific to the services provided, such as site or investigator recruitment, patient enrollment and data management. These measures excluded reimbursed investigator payments, other pass-through costs, and out-of-pocket expenses, which were recognized as incurred and presented separately as a component of total revenue in the unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations. Pursuant to the adoption of ASC 606, the majority of revenue recognized related to Full Service customer clinical trials is accounted for using project costs as an input measure of progress, and includes reimbursable pass-through costs and out-of-pocket expenses.
ASC 606 delayed the recognition of revenue in the Company’s Commercial Solutions segment for the six months ended June 30, 2018 as certain costs to recruit and train the contract field promotion teams, and revenue for the related reimbursements, are deferred and amortized over the contract term under ASC 606. These amounts were previously recognized as each separate service was delivered to the customer. These delays were partially offset by the acceleration of revenue recognition on certain incentive fee programs that were previously recognized upon customer approval. For the three months ended June 30, 2018 ASC 606 accelerated the recognition of revenue as revenue recognition on certain incentive fee programs exceeded the costs deferred for the period.

28



Table of Contents



The following table compares the reported unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets as of June 30, 2018 to the amounts as if the previous revenue recognition guidance remained in effect as of June 30, 2018 (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2018
 
ASC 606
As Reported
 
ASC 605
As Adjusted
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
171,528

 
$
171,528

Restricted cash
2,191

 
2,191

Accounts receivable billed, net
682,415

 
682,415

Accounts receivable unbilled
346,608

 
467,295

Contract assets
131,367

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
82,964

 
62,306

Total current assets
1,417,073

 
1,385,735

Property and equipment, net
163,500

 
163,500

Goodwill
4,275,485

 
4,275,485

Intangible assets, net
1,182,571

 
1,182,571

Deferred income tax assets
32,813

 
27,103

Other long-term assets
101,758

 
90,613

Total assets
$
7,173,200

 
$
7,125,007

 
 
 
 
LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
85,810

 
$
85,810

Accrued liabilities
502,646

 
453,437

Contract liabilities
719,932

 
591,912

Current portion of capital lease obligations
15,201

 
15,201

Current portion of long-term debt
37,500

 
37,500

Total current liabilities
1,361,089

 
1,183,860

Capital lease obligations, non-current
13,241

 
13,241

Long-term debt, non-current
2,835,321

 
2,835,321

Deferred income tax liabilities
32,557

 
45,237

Other long-term liabilities
108,320

 
104,513

Total liabilities
4,350,528

 
4,182,172

Shareholders' equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock

 

Common stock
1,029

 
1,029

Additional paid-in capital
3,371,316

 
3,371,316

Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax
(55,064
)
 
(56,433
)
Accumulated deficit
(494,609
)
 
(373,077
)
Total shareholders' equity
2,822,672

 
2,942,835

Total liabilities and shareholders' equity
$
7,173,200

 
$
7,125,007



29



Table of Contents



The following is a summary of the significant changes in the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets as a result of adopting ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, compared to the amounts as if the Company had continued to report its results under ASC 605:
The reported assets were greater than the total assets that would have been reported had the prior revenue recognition guidance remained in effect. This was largely due to the deferral of certain recruiting and training costs in Commercial Solutions contracts and capitalized sales commissions. The reported liabilities were greater than the total liabilities that would have been reported had the prior revenue recognition guidance remained in effect. This was largely due to advances and deferred revenue in excess of contract assets that are required to be presented net on a contract-by-contract basis.
The adoption of ASC 606 primarily resulted in a revenue recognition delay as of January 1, 2018, which resulted in an increase of the Company’s deferred tax asset position. As the Company records full reserves for its net federal deferred tax assets in the United States, a portion of the impact was offset by a corresponding increase to the valuation allowance against the deferred tax asset position.
The adoption of ASC 606 had no net impact on the Company’s cash flows from operations.
13. Segment Information
During the third quarter of 2017, the Company realigned its operating segments as a result of the Merger to reflect the current structure under which performance is evaluated, strategic decisions are made and resources are allocated. As a result of this realignment, effective August 1, 2017, the Company began evaluating its financial performance based on two reportable segments: Clinical Solutions and Commercial Solutions. Historical segment reporting has been revised to reflect these changes to the Company’s segment structure.

Each reportable business segment comprises multiple similar service offerings that, when combined, create a fully integrated biopharmaceutical outsourcing solutions organization. Clinical Solutions offers a variety of services spanning Phase I to Phase IV of clinical development, including full-service global studies, as well as individual service offerings such as clinical monitoring, investigator recruitment, patient recruitment, data management, and study startup to assist customers with their drug development process. Commercial Solutions provides commercialization services to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and healthcare industries, which include outsourced selling solutions, communication solutions (public relations and advertising), and consulting related services.

The Company’s Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) reviews segment performance and allocates resources based upon segment revenue and income from operations. Beginning in 2018, as a result of the Company’s adoption of ASC 606, revenue and costs for reimbursed out-of-pocket expenses are allocated to the Company’s segments. Prior to 2018, revenue and costs for reimbursed out-of-pocket expenses were not allocated to the Company’s segments. Inter-segment revenue is eliminated from the segment reporting presented to the CODM and is not included in the segment revenue presented in the table below. Certain costs are not allocated to the Company’s reportable segments and are reported as general corporate expenses. These costs primarily consist of share-based compensation and general operating expenses associated with the Company’s senior leadership, finance, Board of Directors, investor relations, and internal audit functions. The Company does not allocate depreciation, amortization, restructuring, or transaction and integration-related costs to its segments. Additionally, the CODM reviews the Company’s assets on a consolidated basis and the Company does not allocate assets to its reportable segments as they are not included in the review performed by the CODM for purposes of assessing segment performance or allocating resources.


30



Table of Contents



Information about reportable segment operating results is as follows (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Clinical Solutions service revenue
$
783,913

 
$
255,504

 
$
1,570,752

 
$
505,001

Commercial Solutions service revenue
288,617

 
2,583

 
558,974

 
5,164

Total segment service revenue
1,072,530

 
258,087

 
2,129,726

 
510,165

Reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses not allocated to segments

 
133,048

 

 
262,888

Total consolidated revenue
$
1,072,530

 
$
391,135

 
$
2,129,726

 
$
773,053

Segment direct costs:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Clinical Solutions
$
357,077

 
$
156,623

 
$
710,970

 
$
306,510

Commercial Solutions
185,344

 
2,433

 
359,756

 
4,668

Total segment direct costs
$
542,421

 
$
159,056

 
$
1,070,726

 
$
311,178

Reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Clinical Solutions
$
251,917

 
$

 
$
513,395

 
$

Commercial Solutions
47,555

 

 
94,843

 

Total segment reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses
$
299,472

 
$

 
$
608,238

 
$

Segment selling, general, and administrative expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Clinical Solutions
$
68,110

 
$
35,278

 
$
134,056

 
$
72,068

Commercial Solutions
21,667

 

 
41,185

 

Total segment selling, general, and administrative expenses
$
89,777

 
$
35,278

 
$
175,241

 
$
72,068

Segment operating income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Clinical Solutions
$
106,809

 
$
63,603

 
$
212,331

 
$
126,423

Commercial Solutions
34,051

 
150

 
63,190

 
496

Total segment operating income
$
140,860

 
$
63,753

 
$
275,521

 
$
126,919

Operating expenses not allocated to segments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses not allocated to segments
$

 
$
133,048

 
$

 
$
262,888

Corporate selling, general, and administrative expenses not allocated to segments
7,638

 
3,978

 
17,397

 
9,016